Here’s Where to Invest your Money in 2022 – Recommended by Certified Financial Planner

Here’s Where to Invest your Money in 2022 – Recommended by Certified Financial Planner

The year 2020 passed in a blur. While it started on a positive note, the Coronavirus pandemic and the subsequent lockdowns brought about an economic slowdown in the country.
Even the financial markets buckled under the global effect of the pandemic. The BSE and NSE, which were at their highest values at 42,273 and 12,362 in the first month of January, fell by 38% when the pandemic struck.
Though the markets are regaining their luster slowly, investors are confused about where to invest in 2022 for maximum gains. What do you think?
Though 2020 was a roller-coaster, investors are eyeing the year 2022 with hope. Investment in 2022 is primarily guided by the recovery of the financial markets after the pandemic as the industry is waking up and normalcy is being restored.
Certified financial planners have also pitched in their recommendations for investments in 2022. Here are, therefore, some of the lucrative investment opportunities for 2022

Here Where to Invest Your Money in 2022:


1) Invest in Direct Equity

For most risk-loving investors, stock trading and investing into direct equity always holds attraction. Even though the equity market suffered losses in the beginning half of 2020 on the pandemic fears, the market is correcting itself and as of the market closing time on 27th November 2020, the NSE and BSE are already at their pre-COVID levels of 12,968.95 and 44,149.72 respectively. (Source:

The boost in the stock exchange was largely due to the promise of the COVID vaccine which is almost in its ready stages. This has resulted in positive market sentiments globally and so, direct equity is once again looking good.

Moreover, history has been a witness that the stock market always bounces back even after a crash, whether it was the Harshad Mehta scam or the 2008 crash. If you invest over a long term period, direct equity is known to yield exponential returns.


Have a look at how the stock market has performed over the last 30 years –

Sensex in last 30 years









The stock market is, therefore, a good avenue, if you are looking at where to invest money in 2022. If you have the appetite to undertake risks it can be a good start for your investments in 2022.

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2) Invest in Mutual Funds

For investors who do not like direct exposure to equity but want to invest in a diversified portfolio, mutual funds are the best solution. Mutual funds are beneficial because –

  • They help you own a diversified portfolio
  • They come in different variants and you can choose a scheme that is relevant to your investment preference and risk appetite
  • ELSS funds allow you the benefit of tax savings on your investments
  • They are professionally managed to allow you to invest in the best stocks and instruments
  • You can invest in mutual fund schemes as low as Rs.500 making them ideal for small-time investors too who want market exposure with limited savings

Given these benefits, the mutual fund market is another avenue that you can explore. In fact, equity mutual funds are less risky compared to direct equity because of the diversification that they provide.


As far as returns are concerned, some equity funds have even outperformed the stock market in several instances. For example, Invesco India’s Growth Opportunities Fund, a large and mid-cap fund, has consistently outperformed the S & P BSE Index over the years. Have a look –

S & P BSE Index over the years








So, as far as returns are concerned, you don’t have to worry. You can also choose SIPs to invest every month in a disciplined manner and build up a substantial corpus over a long-term horizon.

In fact, the mutual fund industry has become so popular, that investors are increasingly investing in the avenue to bank upon its returns. The AUM of the mutual fund industry has, therefore, consistently grown over the years –

mutual funds assets under management









So, consider investing in different schemes of mutual funds to create a diversified portfolio that is liquid, tax-saving, and also return generating.


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3) Invest in National Pension System (NPS)

Have you invested in the National Pension System introduced by the Government? If not, you can consider it in 2022. The reasons? Let’s see –

#1 – It helps you create an earmarked corpus for retirement

#2 – The scheme is market-linked promising inflation-adjusted returns

#3 – You get lifelong incomes in the form of pension after maturity

#4 – Investments into the scheme are tax-free under Section 80CCD (1B) up to Rs.1.5 lakhs

#5 – Additional investments, up to Rs.50, 000 can be claimed as a deduction under Section 80 CCD (1B)

Moreover, if you choose the new tax regime and if your employer contributes to the NPS scheme on your behalf, such contributions would be allowed as a deduction from your taxable income for up to 10% of your basic salary and dearness allowance under Section 80CCD (2).

Besides the market-linked returns, the additional tax benefit, both under the old tax regime and the new one, tilts the scales in favor of the NPS scheme.

You can invest in the scheme for long-term capital accumulation for your retirement. On maturity, you would be allowed to withdraw up to 60% of the accumulated corpus as tax-free income which would also be tax-free in your hands.

So, if tax-saving and retirement planning is your goal, you cannot go wrong with the NPS scheme.


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4) Invest in Fixed Deposits (FD)

This is the avenue for traditional investors who are averse to any kind of market risk and want secured and safe returns. Fixed deposits have been an Indian favorite for a long time and this favor is not going to end anytime soon.

Even though the interest rate on fixed-income instruments, including fixed deposits, has been slashed in recent times, fixed deposits continue to find investors for the safety that they promise.

The popularity of fixed deposit schemes, especially when volatility struck during the pandemic, increased and the trend is expected to continue in 2022.

So, if you want to be safe with your investments, you can choose fixed deposit schemes. However, do not dedicate a large portion of your investment to fixed deposit schemes.

Direct about 5% to 10% of your investment in fixed deposit schemes and the rest should be invested in other market-linked avenues. If you are choosing fixed deposits, here are some tips which you can follow –

  • Invest in 5-year fixed deposit schemes offered by banks and post offices. These schemes allow tax-saving on investment under Section 80C
  • If you want higher returns, opt for fixed deposit schemes offered by NBFCs (Non-Banking Financial Companies)
  • Compare the rate of fixed deposit schemes across institutions and choose the scheme which has the highest rate
  • Do not withdraw your deposits before the completion of the tenure. It would attract a withdrawal penalty which would reduce your interest earnings.

For risk-free returns, you can also choose debt mutual funds which would help you earn inflation-adjusted returns and also earn the benefit of indexation if you redeem your funds after 3 years.


5) Invest in Unit Linked Insurance Plans (ULIP)

While the primary objective of insurance plans is to offer financial protection against premature death, Unit Linked Insurance Plans (ULIPs) serve a dual purpose. Besides allowing insurance coverage, these plans also help you create wealth, a la mutual funds.

ULIPs work on the model of mutual funds. The premium that you pay is invested into different funds of your choice. Each of these funds invests in the capital market depending on the fund’s objective.

For example, equity funds invest in equity stocks while debt funds invest in debt instruments. Depending on the growth of the underlying assets, the NAV of the fund grows and you can earn returns on your investments.

In case of death during the policy tenure, you get higher of the sum assured or the fund value and on maturity, the fund value is paid. The distinct advantages of ULIPs are as follows –

  • Invested premiums qualify for tax deduction under Section 80C up to Rs.1.5 lakhs
  • A single policy gives you the option of different types of investment funds to choose from – equity, debt and hybrid. You can invest in one or more funds as you’re your investment preference. Moreover, you can switch between the chosen funds during the policy tenure depending on the market movements. This switching is completely tax-free and almost all ULIPs allow free switches up to a specific number of times
  • Partial withdrawals from the fund value can be made from the 6th policy year. These withdrawals are also completely tax-free in nature
  • The death benefit received is completely tax-free
  • If the premium paid is up to 10% of the sum assured, the maturity benefit received on maturity is also completely tax-free under Section 10 (10D) of the Income Tax Act, 1961

Moreover, the charges involved under ULIPs have also been reduced in recent times pitching them as a favorable product against mutual funds.


6) Invest in Real Estate

This avenue is for those investors who want to bank on the growth in the real estate market. In 2019 the real estate market was valued at Rs.12, 000 crores, and it is expected to reach Rs.65. 000 crores by 2040.

In 2019, real estate investments amounted to Rs.43, 780 crores, and the number is expected to increase in the coming years. (Source: The introduction of RERA, reduced interest rates on home loans, and the need to own a house are the major driving factors for the growth of the real estate industry.

Housing is one of the basic needs of individuals and if you want to create an asset, you can explore the real estate market as the pandemic has led to a reduction in the prices which would be good for you.

Moreover, if you avail a home loan to invest in a home, you would be able to avail of tax benefits under Sections 80C, 80EEA and 24 on the principal as well as on the interest payable on the loan.

The loan would also improve your credit score and allow you to own your dream house. So, if you have considerable funds at your disposal, opt for real estate either for owning your house or for the creation of an asset.


Here’s a complete guide on how to invest in real estate

7) Invest in Gold

Gold is another investment avenue that you can consider if you are looking to hedge against volatility and uncertainty. Gold holds a traditional value for Indian investors as festivities, weddings, and gifting is marked with physical gold ornaments and jewelry.

From an investment point of view, however, different avenues are in vogue in recent years with the availability of gold ETFs, gold mutual funds and, the all-new, digital gold.

These gold investment avenues are getting much attention because of their safety, liquidity and ease of investing in small amounts.

Here’s a complete guide on how to invest in gold SMARTLY!


When it comes to returns, gold is a safe haven, especially if you are looking for long-term savings. Gold gives cyclical returns and when the markets are volatile, gold is looked upon as a safe investment avenue and its prices surge.

The very recent example is the COVID pandemic wherein the prices of gold jumped in April and May when the pandemic struck India. Moreover, over the last few years, gold has outperformed Sensex in terms of returns. Have a look –

gold vs silver vs sensex












So, you can consider gold as an investment avenue but invest in Gold ETFs or gold mutual funds for liquidity and safety of storage rather than physical gold. You can also trade in gold through these investment avenues and book returns when the price of gold climbs.

2022 is supposed to be a breath of fresh air for the Indian economy and the financial markets as the effect of the unprecedented COVID pandemic is expected to ebb.

Use the afore-mentioned 2022 investment opportunities and make wise investment choices to grow your wealth especially if the pandemic ate into your portfolio in 2020. Plan your investment strategy for 2022.

Understand the avenues before you choose them and then pick suitable options based on your investment need, financial planning in 2022, and, most importantly, risk profile. Also, monitor your portfolio regularly so that you can make changes to it as per your changing financial needs and market dynamics and keep your portfolio profitable in all seasons.


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Best Mutual Funds to Invest in 2022

Best Mutual Funds to Invest in 2022

Mutual fund investments are here to stay. They have become the most popular investment avenues for investors given their –
  • Diversified portfolio
  • Expert fund management
  • Types of available schemes
  • Ease of investments through SIPs
  • Returns offered (Of course!)

In fact, compared to the mutual fund industry of the developed countries like the USA, Europe and other Asian countries, the mutual fund industry of India has shown the maximum growth.

It has grown from USD 92 billion to USD 317 billion at a CAGR of 17% from 2008 to the first quarter of 2019. Have a look –


Even now, in the post-COVID world, as the financial markets are regaining their lost lustre, mutual funds dominate in the investment segment as more and more investors divert their funds towards different types of mutual fund schemes.

The next year is around the corner, and, if you are looking for the best mutual funds to invest in 2022 look no further.

Here is a compilation of some of the best mutual funds to buy right now in 2022 for your investment needs under different categories –


1) Equity Mutual Funds

Let’s consider the equity mutual fund category first, which is the most popular category among investors. Equity mutual funds have a high-risk profile which they compensate with the potential of high returns.

Moreover, ELSS schemes provide tax benefits to investors and are, therefore, highly favoured.

So, let’s have a look at the different types of equity mutual funds and the best funds in each category –


  • Large Cap Funds

Large cap funds are those that invest in the top 100 companies of the stock market.

These funds are better placed to weather out volatile markets as the underlying assets belong to established companies that can withstand a bearish phase.

The best performing mutual funds under this category are as follows –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
Axis Bluechip Fund 14.80% 13.87%
Kotak Bluechip Fund 13.36% 8.85%
ICICI Prudential Bluechip Fund 11.78% 7.10%
Canara Robeco Bluechip Equity Fund 18.99% 13.19%
SBI Bluechip Fund 14.07% 7.41%



  • Mid-cap Funds

Mid-cap funds invest in companies ranked between 101 and 250 on the stock exchange. These funds have a higher risk profile compared to large cap funds and also provide higher returns.

The top performing equity mutual funds in this category are as follows –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
Axis Midcap Fund 22.98% 13.26%
Kotak Emerging Equity Scheme 22.56% 6.55%
DSP Midcap Fund 25.55% 7.87%
PGIM India Midcap Opportunities Fund 48.46% 9.58%
Invesco India Midcap Fund 23.35% 7.55%



  • Small Cap Funds

Small cap funds invest in stocks of companies which are in their growth phase. These companies have a high potential of growth and so promise a high return generating potential.

On the other hand, there is a high risk of capital erosion in volatile markets since small cap stocks face maximum erosion when the markets fall.

So, these funds are considered the best mutual funds to invest in for long term for investors having a high-risk appetite.

The top small cap mutual funds to invest in 2022 are as follows –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
Kotak Small cap Fund 33.84% 6.36%
Nippon India Small Cap Fund 28.32% 2.50%
Axis Small Cap Fund 22.53% 10.80%
DSP Small Cap Fund 36.53% 2.28%
ICICI Prudential Small Cap Fund 21.96% 1.94%



  • Multi-cap Funds

Multi-cap funds are schemes which combine large cap, mid-cap and small cap stocks in their portfolio for diversified holdings.

The asset allocation to each type of stock is a minimum of 25% and then the fund manager is given the choice to allocate assets as per the market dynamics.

The best mutual funds to buy right now in 2022 under the multi-cap category is as follows –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
Parag Parikh Long Term Equity Fund 31.19% 14.46%
PGIM India Diversified Equity Fund 24.57% 11.54%
UTI Equity Fund 26.62% 14.35%
Canara Robeco Equity Diversified Fund 11.15% 11.36%
DSP Equity Fund 17.53% 9.93%




  • ELSS Schemes

Equity Linked Saving Schemes are tax-saving mutual fund schemes that allow a deduction on your investments under Section 80C up to a maximum of Rs.1.5 lakhs. The scheme has a lock-in period of 3 years and offers good returns on investment.


Here’s a complete guide on taxation in mutual funds


The leading ELSS schemes for 2022 are as follows –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
Axis Long Term Equity Fund 17.15% 11.99%
Canara Robeco Equity Tax Saver Fund 23.46% 12.78%
Mirae Asset Tax Saver Fund 19.50% 11.06%
Quant Tax Plan 40.02% 12.85%
Invesco India Tax Plan 15.22% 8.37%



Here’s a FREE certification course on Mutual Funds

2) Debt Mutual Funds

Contrary to equity mutual funds, debt mutual funds invest in debt instruments, i.e. instruments that have a fixed rate of return on investment. That is why debt funds do not face volatility risks.

However, these funds are prone to credit risk and interest rate risk and so the returns from debt funds are not guaranteed. Debt mutual funds come in different categories, mainly based on the average maturity period of their underlying assets.

So, let’s have a look at which mutual funds to invest in 2022 under the debt category –


  • Liquid Funds

If you are planning to invest for a short period of time, liquid mutual funds are ideal.

They promise liquidity and good returns on your surplus funds over the short period for which you park your investments.

If the market becomes volatile and you want to book your profits, you can switch to liquid funds to protect the returns generated from your investments.

You can also use these funds for temporary investments and the best mutual funds to buy right now for 2022 include the following –


Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
Quant Liquid Plan 5.04% 6.44%
Nippon India Liquid Fund 4.39% 6.20%
IDBI Liquid Fund 4.64% 6.26%
Franklin India Liquid Fund 4.49% 6.29%
Tata Liquid Fund 4.44% 6.17%



  • Short duration funds

These funds invest in instruments that have a maturity ranging from 1 year to 3 years. The returns are better than liquid funds since the instruments have a higher duration.

Some of the best short duration funds for 2022 are as follows –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
HDFC Short Term Debt Fund 11.04% 9.07%
ICICI Prudential Short Term Fund 10.81% 8.48%
Kotak Bond Short Term Fund 10.09% 8.45%
Aditya Birla Sun Life Short Term Fund 10.52% 8.47%
Axis Short Term Fund 10.17% 8.57%



  • Corporate Bond Funds

Corporate bond funds invest in corporate bonds issued by established companies for their financial needs. Fund managers invest in high rated corporate bonds for maximum gains at minimal risks.

Some of the best corporate bond funds are as follows –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
HDFC Corporate Bond Fund 11.85% 9.25%
Aditya Birla Sun Life Corporate Bond Fund 11.87% 9.31%
L & T Triple Ace Bond Fund 12.91% 9.93%
IDFC Corporate Bond Fund 11.66% 8.62%
Sundaram Corporate Bond Fund 10.91% 8.69%



  • Gilt Funds

Gilt funds invest in Government securities and promise the highest safety in terms of credit risk. They are, usually, considered as best mutual funds to invest in for long term investment avenues where the underlying assets have long maturity tenures.

The best-gilt funds to invest in 2022 include the following –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
IDFC Government Securities Fund 15.19% 10.80%
DSP Government Securities Fund 14.64% 11.04%
Edelweiss Government Securities Fund 14.52% 10.25%
ICICI Prudential Gilt Fund 14.25% 9.53%
Axis Gilt Fund 13.54% 9.48%


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3) Hybrid Mutual Funds

Hybrid mutual funds combine equity as well as debt instruments and give you a diversified portfolio. While the equity component of the portfolio allows better returns compared to debt funds, the debt component reduces the risk compared to pure equity funds.

Thus, if you are looking for a moderate risk-return profile, hybrid mutual funds are the best mutual funds to invest in 2022.

Hybrid funds are divided into different categories depending on their asset allocation. So, let’s have a look at the best funds in popular hybrid categories –


  • Aggressive Hybrid Funds

Aggressive hybrid funds are those that invest primarily in equity stocks.

At least 65% of the portfolio is allocated to equity stocks and instruments while the remaining is allocated to the debt.

These funds offer equity taxation and attractive returns and some of the best aggressive hybrid funds for 2022 include the following –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
Quant Absolute Fund 29.78% 11.49%
Canara Robeco Equity Hybrid Fund 17.26% 10.41%
DSP Equity and Bond Fund 16.41% 9.41%
BNP Paribas Substantial Equity Hybrid Fund 13.06% 9.92%
Mirae Asset Hybrid Equity Fund 12.46% 8.78%



  • Conservative Hybrid Funds

Contrary to aggressive funds, conservative hybrid funds invest primarily in debt instruments and a part of the portfolio in equity. The fund is suitable for those looking for a low-risk investment with returns better than those provided by debt funds.

The top conservative hybrid funds are as follows –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
Canara Robeco Conservative Hybrid Fund 13.31% 8.71%
Baroda Conservative Hybrid Fund 13.85% 9.00%
Kotak Debt Hybrid Fund 13.95% 7.84%
SBI Debt Hybrid Fund 13.39% 6.54%
Axis Regular Saver Fund 12.83% 6.21%



  • Arbitrage Funds

Arbitrage funds are those which invest in arbitrage opportunities and bank on the price difference between the stock’s value in the spot and futures market.

Arbitrage funds are a good bet in times of market volatility when the price difference between spot and futures market increases thereby promising better returns.

The top arbitrage funds for 2022 are as follows –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
ICICI Prudential Equity Arbitrage Fund 4.17% 5.49%
Nippon India Arbitrage Fund 4.16% 5.75%
L & T Arbitrage Opportunities Fund 4.60% 5.60%
UTI Arbitrage Fund 4.22% 5.59%
Edelweiss Arbitrage Fund 4.35% 5.60%


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4) Other Mutual Fund Schemes

Besides the popular equity, debt and hybrid mutual fund schemes, if you are looking to invest in other, unconventional mutual fund schemes, there are many options.

You can choose international funds, gold funds, sectoral funds, index funds and other types of funds which have a different asset allocation.

Let’s check out the best mutual funds to invest in 2022 under the special category of mutual fund schemes –

Read more about how to choose the right mutual funds as per your financial goals.


  • International Mutual Funds

International mutual funds are ideal if you want investment exposure in international markets. These funds invest in stocks of companies listed in international stock exchanges usually by investing in international funds.

Let’s check out some of the best international funds which you can choose in 2022 –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
PGIM India Global Equity Opportunities Fund 69.30% 30.31%
Franklin India Feeder – Franklin US Opportunities Fund 45.72% 26.46%
Edelweiss Greater China Equity Off-shore Fund 60.08% 23.71%
DSP US Flexible Equity Fund 26.81% 17.12%
Kotak Global Emerging Market Fund 32.76% 11.50%



  • Gold Funds

As the name suggests, gold funds invest in gold instruments to offer you returns linked to the price movement of gold. Gold mutual funds are, usually, fund of funds which invest in gold ETFs to generate returns.

Some of the best gold funds are as follows –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
DSP World Gold Fund 39.81% 18.21%
Axis Gold Fund 27.61% 18.82%
HDFC Gold Fund 27.42% 17.83%
Kotak Gold Fund 27.20% 18.67%
ICICI Prudential Regular Gold Savings Fund 27.00% 17.67%



  • Sectoral Funds

Sectoral funds are equity-oriented mutual funds which invest in stocks of companies engaged in a particular sector.

For example, banking funds invest in banks and NBFCs while pharma funds invest in pharmaceutical companies.

Some of the best sectoral funds for investment in 2022 include the following –

Name of the fund (all are Regular Growth funds) 1-year return* 3-year returns*
ICICI Prudential Technology Fund 58.57% 26.23%
Aditya Birla Sun Life Digital India Fund 49.14% 24.80%
Franklin India Technology Fund 50.64% 23.93%
Tata India Pharma & Healthcare Fund 59.38% 20.11%
Nippon India Pharma Fund 64.49% 21.67%


These are some of the best mutual funds to invest in 2022. These schemes have been picked based on their returns, consistency and performance over a long term period.

You can select one or more of these funds and build up a diversified mutual fund portfolio. When investing, however, keep in mind the tax implications of your investments. Equity funds attract equity taxation wherein-

  • Short term capital gains, if redeemed within 12 months, are taxed at 15%
  • Long term capital gains, if redeemed after 12 months, are tax-free up to Rs.1 lakh. Excess returns are taxed only at 10%

Debt funds, on the other hand, have a different taxation norm. Under such funds –

  • Short term capital gains, if redeemed within 36 months, are taxed at your income tax slab rate
  • Long term capital gains, if redeemed after 36 months, are taxed at 20% with the benefit of indexation

So, understand the taxation rules and choose the best schemes for a wealth maximizing portfolio.

(Disclaimer – The funds mentioned in the article are just our recommendations based on the returns offered by them. These recommendations do not certify any fund to be the best.) (*Returns as on December 2020)

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Personal Financial Planning – 5 Questions to Ask in 2022

Personal Financial Planning – 5 Questions to Ask in 2022

It is relatively easy to make money if you put your mind to it. What is difficult is keeping the money you earn, and even more difficult is making your money grow on its own and work for you when you need it to do so.

In the past two decades of working in banking and financial services industry, I have a strong observation that most people are not very focused on personal financial planning and wary about hiring or appointing a financial planner to help him/ her to do so.

In the name of financial planning for the future, most of the people in India hoard money in fixed deposits in banks and post offices, put some money in PPF (public provident fund) and buy one or two insurance policies.

For the younger lot, you may also find some money put into SIPs in mutual funds too. However irrespective of young or old, you are unlikely to get clarity on the reasons behind such choice of savings/ investments other than tax savings and growing money as objectives.

Questions on specific financial objectives, investment strategy, vehicles, time horizon, the quantum of money expected at maturity, etc. are likely to go unanswered.

All these require focused financial planning and a certified and experienced financial planner can help you plan your finances to ensure you meet your life goals seamlessly.

However choosing the right financial planner may prove to be challenging, unless you understand the importance of financial planning and ask them the right set of questions before contracting and trusting anyone with your hard-earned money.


Personal Financial Planning – 5 Questions to Ask in 2022:


In this article, our effort will be to give you the required insights on all these to help you make conscious decisions regarding your financial planning needs.


1) What is Financial Planning?:


In a normal course of life from the time a person gets into his/ her first job till he/ she chooses to retire, the following are the financial goals and milestones in life when people generally require lump-sum money –


  • Wealth creation –

    In the face of rising inflation, if people need to maintain or improve their standard-of-living they will have to build wealth over a period of time.

    One will need money to buy luxuries/comforts of life ranging from the first car and also change it thereafter, vacations, own new home and associated things.

    All these long term goals require careful financial planning and investments in mutual funds and equities to accumulate an adequate amount of wealth at different timelines.


  • Education of children –

    Even professional undergraduate courses and higher education thereafter are already expensive today in India and across the world.

    This makes it imperative for a parent to plan for the higher education of the child the moment it is born. One needs to take into account the current cost of education and inflation in the economy to calculate the quantum of money required when the child grows up.

    To build the required corpus wealth by the time the child is 18 years old the parent would need to choose investment tools that will not only combat inflation but also untoward exigencies to ensure that the child’s education happens at any cost.


Parents who wish to plan a dream wedding for their children too need to plan in a similar manner to full-fill their wish, come what may.


  • Retirement planning of self –

    Retirement per se, is no longer a set at 60 years of age. People are seen to retire even at 45 years and/ or even at 70 years of age depending on their wish, given the increased life expectancy across the globe.

    All set and done, people get at least 25 to 35 years to plan for their golden years from the day they set foot in their work lives.

    If proper financial planning is done at an early age, then they can start even with a small yet regular investment, in a long term investment vehicle to build a good retirement corpus by the time they retire.


  • Medical and other exigencies –

    Given the uncertainties of life and growing lifestyle diseases, it becomes an absolute must for all to plan for their medical requirements/ exigencies very early in life to get a big medical coverage against a small premium.

    All medical coverage tools are tax-efficient, thus tax benefits are enjoyed on the premium paid every year.


  • Tax- Savings –

    Moreover with an increase in income, tax liabilities to grow. There are an array of tax-efficient savings and investment tools that not only help people save tax on their hard-earned money, but also support them in their long-term wealth creation goals.


All of these expenses need to be carefully planned for in a step-by-step manner, in order to ensure all life goals stated above and more timely planned and accounted for, way in advance keeping in mind the financial capability and needs of the person.

This in short is referred to as financial planning.

Enroll for Finance Planning course on Relationships and Finances and learn how you can manage both efficiently.

2) Plan your finances today:


Leaving financial planning and your financial responsibilities to chance or on other family members in the face of inflation and uncertainties of life might not prove to be a prudent choice.

Here’s a guide to plan finance for your family.

An educated and the mature decision is to act timely with responsibility and plan for your financial/ life goals based on your life stage and its needs without delay.

One must remember that procrastination seldom works with financial planning as time available to life goals is finite.


One must also remember the following points –


  • Inflation is not your friend –

    You must have heard your elders say that everything was cheaper back in their hay days.

    Yes, of course, they were; a movie ticket would cost INR 5 to 20 that today costs INR 500, a chocolate bar would be INR 5 to 10 at the most and today they cost INR 60 to 150 at least, A bus ticket was about 50 paisa that is about INR 8 to 10, groceries and other daily necessities.


So with the increase in income levels of the people, inflation or cost of living too has become dearer so with the same saving that made life seamless then, one would never meet even their basic expenses today.

Simply because, money is losing its purchasing power – the INR 10 that could buy you a bar of chocolate in your childhood would fail to purchase any of them today. You will need INR 150 to make the same purchase as the price has gone up by 15 times!

Similarly, if you save INR 150 in your bank today at a rate of say, 5% also, you will receive only INR 157.50 which will not be able to purchase your favorite chocolate 1 year down the line.


  • Emergency fund requirement –

    As I have always said that the biggest ‘if’ is inbuilt in ‘l-IF-e’ itself. No one knows when uncertainties of life strike with death, disease or disability. All dreams crash when any of these strike life unaware.


Having spent a considerable number of years in the insurance industry, I have seen that many people shy away from buying medical insurance and term insurance because these two policies do not have any maturity benefits!

However, these same sets of people ensure that their cars and motorcycles have 100% insurance coverage on them to protect them from any damage caused by accidents. Knowing very well that your vehicle insurance has no maturity value – you still buy it to offset any damage that can be mitigated financially.

The same logic must be applied to human lives, as life is priceless.

Moreover, unwarranted job loss too can shake up your dreams and aspirations. The emergency fund made available from timely and judicious financial planning is required to ensure your expenses are taken care of even on rainy days.

Investments in debt instruments like fixed deposits and income funds may prove to be beneficial in meeting such needs.


  • Funding the Golden Years –

    Progress in medical science has ensured we live long and healthy retired lives. This is indeed a blessing. People can enjoy their golden years with their loved ones, pursuing passions and hobbies, travelling the world and more.

    However, an important consideration here is funding all of these expenses, not forgetting medical expenses that generally arise with old age.

    Only timely and proper financial planning for retirement will ensure a steady and stable monthly income during the retirement years.


Enroll for our a FREE course on financial planning


3) Financial Planner:


All that we have discussed till now clearly defines the need to appoint a financial planner to help you create a program and manage your personal finances to help you meet your long-term life goals.

Having said that, it is also to be noted that the market is flooded with financial planners; but choosing the right one who has the ‘best interest at heart is essential for your financial wellbeing and peace of mind.

This is because, unlike lawyers and doctors who have a defined designation per law, the financial planners can carry various titles like – financial planners, financial planning officers, wealth managers, wealth advisors, financial service consultants, investment advisors, investment manager, among other designations.

Here are top reasons why you should hire a financial planner right now!



4) Top 5 Questions you can ask in 2022 to your Financial Planner:


This makes it difficult to ascertain the right or most suitable financial planner for your needs. Asking the right set of questions is critical to meet your needs.

Here are 5 questions we feel are most relevant to for you to ask before making a choice about your financial planner.



1) How does the financial planner expect to be paid for his services? Is he disclosing it?


Mutual fund agents/ distributors are paid a commission by the fund house. It is calculated as a part of the invested amount, and on every new investment, you make in the same scheme.

The amount of commission can vary from fund house to fund house and from scheme to scheme as well. It can vary from –

  • About 4.5% to 1% in ELSS
  • About 0.5% to 2.5% in Equity Schemes to a low
  • About 0.2%% to 0.8% in Debt Funds


Certified Financial Planners registered with SEBI provide service to their clients against a fee-only and are expected to act only in your interest. But one may not be able to vouch for that.


Thus on the very first meeting, you must check and clarify how his/ her payments are to be calculated and paid. In case if anyone says that it is a free service or hesitates to disclose details, it should raise an alarm with you. There is no free service anywhere.

Here’s where you should invest your money in 2022, recommended by top financial planners


2) What is his/ her specialisation and how long has he been in this profession?


Majority of the times it has been seen that the financial planner(s) is representing a specific company or fund house and all his products/ schemes they suggest are from a specified set of companies.

There will be others who are selling various products, but their technique is to ‘push-sell’ the products drawing comparison on how other customers have benefitted from such investments.

Neither are they able to answer your questions satisfactorily. These may not be the right persons for you.

Also ask them the kind of client base they cater to, in terms of at least their age and occupation and the number of years the financial planner is servicing these clients (someone with at least 4 to 5 years of experience should serve you good).

This will give you a fair idea about whether the financial planner will suit your profile.



3) Where is the focus: on your need or the product?


A good financial planner will always spend time to understand your financial needs – both short term and long term ones, along with your current financial situation and income sources.

He/ she should ask you about your dependants and the reasons behind your investment requirements. He/ she must also check about your risk appetite and probable reactions in face of loss due to market downturn.

He/ she is also likely to educate your instruments in case if they feel that it might be suitable for your long-term needs.

Only then will they will be in a position to recommend suitable investments tools to meet your needs. They will also ensure that you have a diversified portfolio to ensure mitigate future loss if any.

However, any financial advisor/ planner who positions and pushes one specific product as a one-stop solution to many needs, should raise a flag with you and is unlikely to be the right one for you.

This is because it has been observed that these advisors push those products which earn them bigger commissions and/ or are required to meet their assigned targets.


4) Promising high returns? – Be aware

Is your financial planner promising you a guaranteed return of 12 to 15% annually or even on the overall investment? If yes, this should raise an alarm for you.

No market-linked investments, ranging from stocks to mutual funds to ULIPs, guarantee returns such high returns. Even if they show you any printed document with returns; remember they are merely illustrations based on either past performance of the funds/ plans.

Generally, a 7 to 8% compounded annual returns are expected over the long term; rest are inflated returns to attract retail investors like us.

Even in the case of government/ sovereign bonds, the return/ rate of interest guaranteed on the bond is subject to various terms of conditions.

To ensure you ask and get clarity and satisfaction with their answers before you choose to invest in such instruments.



5) Is your financial planner explaining and discussing the risks involved in an investment?


Most of the financial planners/ consultants talk about the bright side of the investments especially in terms of returns. However only a few make their clients aware of the risks involved in certain investments.

For example, unit-linked investment plans (ULIPs) are suitable for young people who have a 15 to 30 years time horizon to maturity at that will reap good returns because of the power of compounding.

However, for old and retired people in their 60s and 70s, ULIPs are not suitable at all, as mortality charges will be very high at these ages and secondly this is not the age to get exposed to market-related investments that expose this set of people to market volatility.

Moreover, there are investment planners who pursue old people in their 70s and 80s to propose insurance policies for their grandchildren or children – the latter being aware of such investments being made.

They do this because their lives are beyond insurable age and/ or they are likely to have old age health issues as well.

So to make an easy cut, they get the policies issued in the names of younger people in their families – not mentioning that the policies will lapse in case anything happens to the proposers.

Thus one must ask enough and more questions about risks involved in any investments an advisor proposes to them to clearly understand the pros and cons involved.

In case aged investors, if you think you need to involve a family member to understand the proposal(s) better, please do so to ensure no money is lost in the deal.

Never go by the level of knowledge, polished outlook, and smooth-talking of your advisor.

Instead, focus on whether he/ she is thinking solely about your needs and interests when strategizing and suggesting you various investment options.

It has been observed that financial planners sometimes suggest unregulated investment options like Alternate Investment Funds, Bitcoin to young affluent and progressive customers.

Be sure to read on your own and understand every detail of such products – given that they are very complex and risky investments to step into unless you are a millionaire and have spare money to get into such things.

It is never advisable to hurry investments in instruments like these.

You can even ask questions to our experts, they will answer them instantly on our App. Download Koppr App and Join the Koppr Tribe Now!


We have full  Step-by-Step video on Financial Planning


5) The Koppr Edge: How can Koppr help you with your financial planning:


We at Koppr are dedicated to serving our clients to understand their detailed needs with our specialised mechanism and plan their finances to help them achieve their financial goals. You may read the Financial Planning guide for your reference:


You can simply start your investing journey with Koppr by starting your own Financial Planning.


1) Step 1: Sign-in or Sign-Up your Koppr account with your own credentials:








2) Step 2: After you log in, you can see your investment portfolio










3) Step 3: There is a list of your Financial Goals for you to choose from. You can choose any of the listed financial goals like home, car, marriage, child planning, higher education, family financial support, vacation, paying off your existing outstanding debts, home improvement, emergency planning, etc. or even custom your own plan as per your requirements.

Create your financial goals








4) Step 4: Suppose you wish to buy a house, you need to enter the approximate value of your house now that you wish to buy. So, say you wish to buy a house which is now priced at INR 50 lakhs

plan your dream home









5) Step 5: Then you need to answer the question: “When do you plan to buy the house?”
Say, you choose Apr-2023.

save money for your dream home










6) Step 6: Then, you need to enter how much loan you wish to take, in terms of %. So, suppose to wish to opt for a 60% loan

financial planning to buy your dream home









7) Step 7: The calculator simply calculates the amount of money you need in the mentioned timelines, which in our example is INR 22.05 lakhs in 2 years and 2 months

dream home financial planning










8) Step 8: It also specifies the amount of money you need to save on a monthly basis to achieve your dream home

buy your dream home with proper financial planning











9) Step 9: This can be added to your Financial Goals with “Create Goal”

create financial goals








10) Step 10: Likewise, you can add other goals as per your requirement and create your Financial Plan on the Koppr App.


11) Step 11: You can also like or unlink your current investments to your financial plan so that you can track the progress of the same.


Our mission is to provide you with the right tools and financial products and take care of your financial well-being.


Download the Koppr app and take care of your finances today!

Take care of your Finances with Koppr!

How Do You Start Trading and Investing? – Building An Ideal Stock Portfolio and Making Money

How Do You Start Trading and Investing? – Building An Ideal Stock Portfolio and Making Money

The stock market holds an attraction for many investors, both budding and seasoned. While for budding investors the stock market can prove to be an avenue for quick returns, for seasoned investors, the stock market is an avenue for wealth creation. In fact, after the pandemic, the popularity of stock trading has intensified further as the numbers indicate.

As per the data furnished by CDSL and NSDL, the two primary depositories in India, active Demat accounts increased by 10.4 million in the year 2020.

Moreover, in the third quarter of 2020, retail ownership of 1500+ companies listed on the NSE jumped by 9%, which was the highest since March 2018. 

While the stock market popularity is increasing, its technical aspects should not be ignored.

The stock market has the potential of delivering attractive returns but only if you invest in it wisely.

The stock market for beginners might look like a challenging platform and so, there is a need to simplify it. 

So, here are some important principles of stock trading for beginners, which should be kept in mind when investing in stocks –


1. Principles of stock trading for beginners

  • Invest your surplus funds

While investing is good, you need to pay your bills too.

So, meet all the necessary expenses to arrive at your disposable income, i.e. the income earned minus the expenses. This disposable income is your savings which you can invest in stocks and other avenues to generate returns.

These savings, or surplus, can then be invested in the stock market.


  • Do not go all in

When you are starting your journey in the world of stock trading, you need to be very careful.

Start with baby steps so that you do not expose all your savings to the volatility of the equity market.

Moreover, when you start with small steps, you can also learn the ropes without too much to lose.

So, even when you have a considerable disposable income or surplus to invest, don’t go all in. Start with testing the waters of stock trading. Invest in a few stocks at a time.

Do not put all your savings in the stock market. If there is a sudden tumble, you would suffer a considerable loss.

Expose a part of your savings to the stock market. The rest of your savings should be allocated to other investment avenues which would give a diversified portfolio.

This would ensure that even if the stock market is in a downturn, other investment avenues deliver returns on your investments.

Want to start investing in Stock Market? Enroll in our Free course on Stock Market. Join Now!


  • Do not borrow to invest

This is the worst mistake that many failed investors have made.

When the stock market is giving good returns, many investors want to maximize the growth potential.

If they have limited savings at their disposal, they resort to debt to invest. Their belief is simple – they can earn good returns on the borrowed money and make an additional gain.

Does this belief work?
It might not, especially if the stock market turns volatile.

The stock market is highly dynamic. While it might be scaling new heights, a small factor can reverse the trend and make it volatile.

Spotting this trend reversal is difficult, and for beginners, it can prove to be impossible.

So, borrowing to make more money is a fatal flaw. Invest only what you can spare from your income. No matter how high the share market is climbing, never get tempted to borrow. You never know when the tables can turn.

Speculate with your money, not with others’ or you might not only suffer a loss but also find yourself in debt when the market tumbles.


  • Be careful when picking the right stocks

There are more than a thousand stocks trading on the stock exchange. Can you invest in all?

To earn attractive returns from the stock market, you need to choose the right stocks for your portfolio.

The choice depends on your investment strategy and the profit-generating potential of the stock.

There are three main types of stocks in the share market –

  • Large-cap stocks belong to companies that have a high market capitalization. Such companies are established companies that are financially stable.
  • Mid-cap stocks belong to companies that have a medium market capitalization. Such companies are in their growth stage or in the stage of establishing themselves in the industry.
  • Small-cap stocks belong to small-cap companies, i.e. companies that have just listed on the stock exchange and are on their way to growth.


Large-cap stocks have the most stable profile while small and mid-cap stocks are volatile.

As a beginner, you can pick large-cap stocks for lower risks.

Also, when investing in stocks, make a technical and fundamental analysis of the company.

In other words, check the stock’s past trends, its previous highs, and lows, growth, etc.

Moreover, check if the company has strong management, has the potential to grow or not, has financial stability, etc. This assessment would help you know which stocks might generate a profit on your investment.

Just before investing, here are the 9 Different Types of Stocks you Should Know. Read our blog Now!


  • Do not follow the herd mentality

What is right for your friend, colleague or neighbor might not be right for you. You need to make investment decisions based on your investment strategy, financial goals, risk profile, etc.

You should not be driven by herd mentality. Even if the herd is following a particular stock, assess the stock first before you invest it. Don’t invest because others have done so.

You need to make sure that the stock that you pick matches your investment needs, not others’.


  • Be patient

Stock investing is not a magic wand, spin it and you get rich. It needs patience.

If a stock is doing well, don’t be in a hurry to sell it off and make a profit. It can deliver higher returns if you allow it to grow.

Similarly, if the market suddenly turns volatile, don’t panic.

The stock market experiences cycles of volatility but if you are patient, the market rebounds and recovers. Take the pandemic for instance.

While the market became highly volatile when the pandemic struck, it has doubled up now that the pandemic’s scare is subsiding. 

You need to be patient if you are investing in the stock market because it is a roller coaster ride with many ups and downs. If you can be patient in challenging times, you would come out the other side a winner.

Building an Ideal stock portfolio needs you to pick up stock properly. Learn How to Pick Stocks. Enroll in this course Now!


  • Have a long-term vision

Though the stock market can deliver quick returns, time can multiply the returns further.

Moreover, if the market becomes bearish, you need to give it time to recoup the losses and enter the bullish trend.

Stock market investing is not a short-term game. If you really want to really earn a return from stock investing, give it time and see your portfolio grow exponentially. 


  • Diversify 

Diversification is the golden rule of investing. In simple terms, diversification means allocating your investments into different avenues. While portfolio diversification means investing in different types of assets, when it comes to diversification in the stock market, it is all about the types of stocks that you pick.

To diversify in the stock market, invest in large-cap, mid-cap as well as small-cap stocks. Moreover, choose stocks of companies in different industries like IT, metal, pharmaceutical, FMCG, etc. Do not invest in only one company.

When you diversify, the volatility risk of one type of stock is offset by another. Not all stocks might fall. Some might fall while some might rise. The returns earned from rising stocks, thus, balances out the loss suffered from falling ones.

For instance, during the pandemic, stocks across most sectors fell but the pharma and FMCG sector stocks grew due to high demand.

So, when you have a diversified portfolio, you can mitigate the volatility risks of stock investing by investing in different types of stocks.

Here is the A Complete Guide on How to Read Stock Charts – Basics to Advanced. Read this article Now!


  • Review your portfolio, regularly 

Lastly, monitor and track your portfolio on a regular basis. This is important for two reasons. One, you can see which stocks are performing well and have the potential to grow so that you can make additional investments in them.

Two, you can keep a tab on non-performing stocks and weed them out of your portfolio so that you don’t incur an opportunity cost by staying invested in them.

So, track your portfolio regularly to watch how your investment is performing. It would also give you an idea of the corpus that has been created so that you can plan your financial goals.

Do you have any questions related to Stock Market, whether it’s your first investment, stock-picking, etc? Ask questions to our stock market expert and get instant answers. Join Koppr Tribe Now! Download Koppr App Now!


2. How to start trading in stocks?


To start trading in stocks, you need three things –

  1. A Demat account
  2. A trading account
  3. Bank savings account linked to the trading account


The Demat and trading accounts are opened with a depository participant authorized by SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India). A trading account is linked with your bank savings account.

Any buying or selling in shares is done through the trading account. The Demat account is like a storehouse wherein the shares that you buy are stored in a dematerialized (electronic) format. 

Also, you need a broker through whom you can buy or sell shares. As per SEBI’s rules share trading in India can be done only through brokers. 

When it comes to stockbrokers, there are two main types of brokers that you can choose from –

Read our article on How to invest in stocks in India for trading or long-term investment? – A Complete Guide


  • Full-service brokers

Full-service brokers are those who charge a fee for their services. Moreover, they might also charge a brokerage on each trade that you place. For the fee charged, however, full-service brokers provide their expert recommendations on the stocks that you should pick.

They also help you create a diversified portfolio and advise you on stock investing by picking the right stocks on your behalf. For beginners, full-service brokers can prove to be a good choice for expert guidance on stock investing.


  • Discount brokers

Discount brokers have become the rage in recent times as they charge minimal or zero brokerage on your trades. They only charge a low fee when you join them and after that, no brokerage is charged on equity trading. However, discount brokers might not give you expert guidance on picking the right stocks and help you with your portfolio. 


3 Things To Keep in Mind While Investing in Stock Market




3. Tax implication of stock trading

Before you start stock trading, you need to understand its tax implication as well. 

Stocks are equity instruments and so, they attract equity taxation. If you sell off a share within 12 months of buying it, any returns earned from the transaction would be called a short-term capital gain.

Such a gain would be taxed at 15%. On the other hand, if you sell off a share after 12 months of buying it, the returns earned from the transaction would be called a long-term capital gain.

Such a gain would be tax-free up to Rs.1 lakh. However, if your gain exceeds Rs.1 lakh, the excess would be taxed in your hands at 10%.

For example, say you bought 10,000 shares of ABC Limited on 1st January 2021 at Rs.50/share. In June 2021, you sell off 6000 shares at Rs.70/share. Thereafter, on 2nd February 2022, you sell off the remaining 4000 shares at Rs.80/share. The tax implication of these trades would be as follows –

  1. For June 2021, the period of holding is less than 12 months. The gains earned would be Rs.20/share. Total gains would be Rs.120,000 (6000*20) which would be taxed at 15%. So, on the June 2021 trade, you would have to pay a tax of Rs.18,000.
  2. For February 2021, the holding period is more than 12 months. The gains would, thus, be called long-term capital gains. The gain would be Rs.30/share which would amount to Rs.120,000 (4000*30). Gains up to Rs.1 lakh would be tax-free. The excess gain of Rs.20,000 would be taxed at 10% and the tax liability would come to Rs.2000.

Tip – Long-term stock holding is also beneficial from the tax point of view. It gives you the benefit of long-term capital gains tax wherein gains up to Rs.1 lakh can be claimed as tax-free income. As can be seen in the above example, though the gain is the same in both cases, the tax liability is lower in the case of long-term capital gains compared to the short term.


This comprehensive stock market investment guide includes detailed information all you need before investing in stock markets. Download stock market guide PDF for FREE!


4. Stock trading for students and housewives

When it comes to stock trading, there is no restriction on who can trade. You just need to be 18 years and above and have a valid Demat account, trading account and bank savings account to start trading in stocks.

If you are a housewife or a student, you might not have a regular source of income. If you have a part-time hustle or if you save regularly, you can start trading in the stock market.

However, be careful when picking stocks. Choose stocks after understanding their profit potential. Also, be disciplined in your investing habits. Do not panic when the stock market suffers volatility.

Be patient and wait for the volatility to pass. If you exercise patience, you can end up multiplying your investments with time.

Also, students and housewives should invest only what they can spare. Do not invest all your savings into stocks. Keep some aside for other avenues too since the stock market is a risky place. If there is a downswing, you might lose your savings and be in the red, a situation that is best avoided.


5. Stock trading for working professionals

For working professionals, stock trading can be a good way to accumulate wealth for future financial goals. When you are young and you have a source of income, you can set aside a part of your income for stock trading, every month.

Invest small amounts every month and slowly create a diversified portfolio. Since you are young, you can afford equity exposure and create wealth over a long-term horizon. 

Follow the aforementioned principles of stock trading whether you are a beginner or a seasoned stock investor. Do not speculate too much but invest in other avenues as well to create a diversified portfolio that does not depend only on the stock market for wealth creation. 


6. Making money from stock trading

Stock trading is an avenue that is seen by many as a way to make money. Well, given the recent rally in the stock market, both BSE and NSE, the profit potential cannot be ignored. However, you should also remember the risks involved in stock trading. 

When trading in stocks, here are a few tips to make money –

  1. Choose established stocks that can weather out small volatilities
  2. Keep an eye out for the quarterly reports of companies to know which company is earning profits and the future prospects
  3. Keep yourself updated about the latest news and happenings of the stock market. There is something new every day and you need to be updated about the latest developments to ensure that your portfolio remains relevant even in changing markets. Koppr helps you stay abreast of all the latest stock market news. Install the Koppr app on your phone and check the daily happenings.
  4. Learn the technicalities of the stock market to learn how to spot opportunities and make money. Here too, Koppr can prove to be helpful. There are various learning resources on the Koppr app which can help you learn the nitty-gritty of the stock market
  5. Ride out market volatilities and invest with a long-term horizon 


The bottom line

Trading on the stock exchange is simple. However, before you start your journey, learn the basic principles of stock trading. Know how the stock market works so that you can use it to your advantage to make money. Learn the tips and tricks of stock trading and become a smart investor.


Want to stay updated with the latest Stock Market news, information, videos, tips, and podcasts? Download our Koppr App and don’t miss any updates. Download Now!

9 Different Types of Stocks you Should Know

9 Different Types of Stocks you Should Know

The share market has become a popular investment avenue for many due to the attraction of good returns. It is a marketplace where shares are bought and sold. The stock market is a significant factor in the economic development of a country.

It is volatile and reacts to various indicators of economic growth such as inflation, GDP, corporate earnings, and more.

Investors invest in the stocks of a company to benefit from the growth of a company. For their investments, they can earn dividends and capital returns.

But to understand the concept of the stock market, you need to, first, understand the concept of shares.

So, let’s explore –


What are Shares?

The capital of a company is divided into equal units of finite numbers of instruments known as a share. Each share represents per-unit ownership of the company. If you invest in a share, you are said to be investing in the company.

For example, say a company issues 1 lakh shares and you invest in 10,000 of them. In such a case, you would be said to own 10% of the company.

For your investment in a company’s shares, you are rewarded. If the company earns a profit, a part of such profit is distributed in the form of dividends to shareholders. Moreover, if the company grows, the value of its shares also grows.

This gives you capital appreciation on the invested amount.


Why do companies issue shares? 

Issuance of shares is considered to be one of the easiest, advantageous and successful ways to raise funds for operation and growth. Besides the primary reason for raising funds from the market, there are many other reasons why companies issue shares. Some of the common reasons are as follows:

  • To get funds to purchase assets and equipment
  • To get funds for establishing and developing new projects or products
  • For expansion
  • To increase its inventory
  • To pay off the debts or to redeem its debentures
  • To increase its flexibility and liquidity
  • For the purpose of merger and acquisition
  • To get market visibility


Types of Shares

There are different types of stocks that are traded in the Indian stock market. These shares can be classified on the basis of various parameters. The parameters of the classification of the stock and the different types of shares under each classification are discussed below:


1. Types of shares on the basis of Stock classes

Stocks classified on the basis of classes are primarily of three kinds. They are as follows:


a). Equity shares

Equity shares are ordinary shares of the company which provide voting rights to the shareholders. These shares are also called common stock. Profits are distributed on equity shares in the form of dividends but the dividend is not guaranteed.

It depends on the profit earned by the company in a financial year. Moreover, in the case of liquidation of the company, equity shareholders are paid at the end.

The assets of the company are used to pay off the creditors and liabilities. Thereafter, preference is given to preference shareholders who are paid off for their investments. Once the preference shareholders are paid off, equity shareholders get the residual assets of the company.

Equity shares suffer considerable volatility and price fluctuations but also have the potential of giving attractive returns too.


b). Preference shares

Preference shares are the shares for which the shareholders receive preferential treatment.

The dividends are paid on such shares at a guaranteed rate before a dividend is declared on equity shares.

The preference share capital is paid before paying the equity share capital at the time of winding up of the company. Preference shares do not carry any voting rights and they cannot participate in the decision-making matters of the company.

However, if the dividend in respect of a class of preference shares has not been declared or paid by the company for a period of two years or more than two years, then such class of preference shareholders will be entitled to vote on the resolutions and shall have voting rights.


Want to start investing in Stock Market? Enroll in our Free Stock Market Course to start with. Join Now


2. Types of shares based on voting rights

Shares might or might not carry voting rights. As such, they can be differentiated on this parameter as well. Here are the types of shares based on voting rights.


a) Differential voting rights shares

Differential voting rights equity shares are the common equity shares that do not have voting rights. These shares are traded in the stock exchange like other regular equity shares but at a discounted value and carry higher dividends in comparison to ordinary equity shares. A company planning to offer differential voting rights equity shares is required to fulfill the eligibility criteria before issuing it.


b) Shares with voting rights 

These are equity shares that have full voting rights. Shareholders owning these types of shares can vote on the managerial and executive matters of the company. They can vote at the company’s meetings and play a part in the management of the company.


Check out our blog on How to Value a Stock? – The Definitive Guide.


3. Types of shares on the basis of tradability

Stocks of companies might have different trading features. This, further, differentiates shares. Have a look –


a) Derivative stocks

Derivative stocks are stocks that are offered with an inbuilt derivative option.

These stocks are contracts that derive their value from underlying assets. Derivative stock comes with a ‘call’ or a ‘put’ option.

A call option offers the option of buying back the stock by the company at a certain price on a certain point in time whereas a put option provides the holder to sell the stock to the company at a certain time and a certain price.


b) Hybrid stocks

Hybrid stocks are nothing but preference shares that give you the option to convert them into equity shares after a specified time and if specific conditions are met.

So, when the shares are preference shares, you cannot trade them on the stock exchange.

But, if you opt for conversion and the shares are converted to equity shares, you get the option of trading them on the exchange for a profit.

Do you have any questions related to Stock Market? Confused where to invest, how to invest? Ask all your questions to our Stock Market experts and get expert advice. Join Koppr Tribe Now! Download Koppr App


4. Types of shares on the basis of market capitalization

Market capitalization refers to companies’ total shareholding. The market capitalization of a company is calculated by multiplying the total number of shares outstanding in the market with the current market price of the stock of the company.

The market capitalization of the company is one of the significant factors to know the financial position of the company.

The Association of Mutual Funds in India prepares a list of companies based on their market capitalization. This list determines which companies are large-cap, which are mid-cap, and which are small-cap.

Then, depending on its classification, the company’s stocks are also classified in the same category. Have a look –


a) Small-cap stock

Small-cap companies are those that rank 251 and above in the market capitalization list issued by AMFI.

These stocks have the potential for good growth in the future and are a good choice for investors who are looking forward to investing their funds for the long term.

Investors who are willing to withstand price volatility and are not particular about current dividends can invest in small-cap stocks and make significant gains.


b) Mid Cap stocks

Midcap stocks are the stocks offered by companies listed between 101 and 250 on AMFI’s list. Such companies are those that are in their growth stages and have the potential to grow in the future.

Mid-cap stocks, thus, provide the benefit of attractive growth potential.

These companies have a good track record of consistent growth. When it comes to volatility, mid-cap stocks are less volatile than small-cap stocks.


c) Large-cap stocks

Large-cap stocks are the stocks of established enterprises which are also known as blue-chip companies with large capital reserves at their disposal. These companies are ranked from 1 to 100 on AMFI’s list.

Large-cap companies have already made a name for themselves in the stock market and they are market leaders.

As such, these companies have the capacity to withstand extreme market conditions without going bankrupt. Large-cap stocks, thus, are stable compared to mid-cap and small-cap stocks.

They offer high dividend income and give moderate returns on your investments.


Want to get good returns when you invest in Stock Market. Read our complete blog on How to Analyze Stocks to Get Good Returns


5. Types of socks on the basis of risk

Fluctuation in the share price is a determining factor of risk associated with stocks.

The higher the risk, the higher will be return and vice versa.

There are two types of stocks based on risk factors which are discussed as follows:


a) Blue-chip stocks

Companies with stable earnings and fewer liabilities issue blue-chip stocks to their investors. These companies are none other than large-cap companies which are also called blue-chip companies.

Blue-chip stocks offer regular dividend payments to investors and are issued by well-recognized companies having a history of stable financial performance.

These stocks are, thus, comparatively safer investment avenues for the investors who are looking for low risk and good returns.


b) High Beta stocks

High Beta stocks are the stocks that carry higher risk in comparison to blue-chip stocks. The risk is measured through the volatility of the stock price. It is also called beta.

The beta or the risk factor in the stocks can be positive or negative denoting its movement in sync with the volatility of the market or against it.

Higher the beta, the higher will be the risk of the stock, and the higher the returns.

Beta stocks with a beta value of more than one mean that the stock volatility is more than market volatility.

So, if the market delivers a return of 10%, stocks with a beta of more than 1 would deliver a return of more than 10%.

On the other hand, if the market falls by 10%, such stocks would fall by more than 10%.


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6. Types of shares on the basis of price trends

Stocks can also be classified on the basis of the movement of their prices in the market against the earnings of the company.

These stocks are influenced by the earnings of the company. There are two types of stocks based on price trends:


a) Cyclical stocks

Cyclical stocks are the stocks that encounter high fluctuations in their prices with changes in the market and are generally affected, to a great extent, by the economic conditions in the market.

These stocks grow very fast during the boom cycle. These stocks may slow down in changing economy. Stocks offered by automobile companies and airline industries fall under this category.


b) Defensive stocks

Defensive stocks are the stocks which not affected by the economic conditions and as the name suggests, it is used as a defense particularly when the market conditions are slow and poor.

Common examples of defensive stocks are stocks of food and beverages companies.

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7. Types of stocks on the basis of fundamentals

Some investors compare the prices of the shares with various factors such as profit earnings per share to find the intrinsic value of the shares.

These investors believe that the price of the share should be equal to the intrinsic value of the share of the company and based on this intrinsic value share the investors make investment decisions.

Types of shares on the basis of fundamentals are discussed as follows:


a) Undervalued shares

Shares whose price is less than their intrinsic value are referred to as undervalued shares. These shares are quite popular amongst value investors.

It is believed that the prices of the share will increase in the future and the investors may gain when the share price equals or increases its intrinsic value.


b) Overvalued shares

Shares with prices exceeding the intrinsic value are considered overvalued.

These shares are those which are considered valuable among investors. As such, the trading volume is high for such shares.


Here is the comprehensive Stock Market Investment Guide includes detailed information all you need before investing in stock markets.


8. Types of share on the basis of payment of dividend

The dividend is one of the most significant factors in the share market. They are mainly two types of shares on the basis of payment of dividends. They are as follows:


a) Income stocks

Income stocks pay a higher dividend in comparison to growth stocks. Income stocks show that the company is making a good profit and is stable enough to afford the payment of consistent dividends.

These stocks are named income stocks as the stock pays higher dividends to investors translating it to higher income. These stocks include preferred stocks.

To find the stocks offering higher dividends, investors can use the share dividend yield measure to calculate earnings per share from the investment.


b) Growth stocks

Growth stocks, as the name suggests, are the stocks issued by the companies which re-invest the earnings of the investors enabling the funds to grow faster.

These stocks do not yield higher dividends but offer long-term capital appreciation. The share value increases with the growth rate providing higher returns to the investors.

Growth stocks are a good choice for investors who are looking to invest their funds for the long term and not as a source of income. Risks involved in growth stocks are generally higher.

So, when investing in stocks, assess the type of stock that you are picking. Moreover, here are some stock investing facts that you should know about.


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Facts to know about shares and the share market


  1. Shares are risky investment avenues that, though have high profit potential, can cause considerable losses too. So, you should have a healthy risk appetite to absorb possible losses. Try and invest with a long-term horizon so that you can reduce the risks of stock trading.
  2. Have a diversified portfolio of stocks so that you can spread the volatility risks across different sectors of the economy.
  3. Shares are traded on different types of stock exchanges. The National Stock Exchange and the Bombay Stock Exchange are the two major stock exchanges in India.
  4. Stocks can be brought through a depository participant by opening a Demat account. Depository participants are intermediaries between an investor and the depository authority.
  5. There are two types of dividend, interim and final dividend depending on the classification of stocks.
  6. Shares are freely transferable by the shareholders and can be sold to another party.
  7. There are two types of shareholders i.e primary shareholders who purchase the stock when the company issues it and secondary shareholders who purchase the stock from the stock exchange in the secondary market.
  8. Shares are held in electronic mode in a dematerialized form through a depository and a depository participant.
  9. Companies can issues shares at their face value or at an amount higher than their face value. The difference between the amount of share price and its face value is called share premium.


Now you know which types of stock are there, It’s time to start investing in Stock Market. Read our complete blog on Best Stock Market Apps for Investment


Tax treatment of stock trading

Buying and selling of shares, whichever type that you choose to trade in, attracts tax if you make a profit.

Here’s how the tax treatment works –

  • If you sell the stock within 12 months of buying it, the profit earned would be called a short-term capital gain. Such a gain would be taxed at 15%.
  • If you sell the stock after 12 months of buying it, the profit earned would be called a long-term capital gain. Such a gain would be tax-free up to Rs.1 lakh. However, if the gain exceeds Rs.1 lakh, the excess gain would be taxed at 10%.
  • Dividends earned from stocks are taxed at your income tax slab rates.


The bottom line

The stock market is a technical platform where thousands of shares are bought and sold every day. Understand how the market works before you start your stock trading journey.

Also, when picking stocks for your portfolio, do a detailed analysis of the stock to ensure that it is profitable and would give a good bang for your buck.

Also, understand the different types of stocks available in the market and choose those which align with your investment needs and preferences.

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6 Best Stock Market Apps for Investment

6 Best Stock Market Apps for Investment

There are many investment avenues that you can use to create wealth for your financial goals. Among the different avenues, stock trading is quite popular among investors. Stock trading, in the simplest form, means buying and selling stocks from the stock market. It is a popular mode of investment because –

  • It has a high return potential
  • It can create wealth over long-term horizons
  • It is a highly liquid avenue

Moreover, the stock trading activity is done online through an online Demat account. You can place buy and sell orders through a licensed broker to trade in stocks.

Thanks to the development of technology, the advent of the internet, and the increased use of Smartphones, your trusted brokers are now available right at your fingertips.

Yes, you heard it right! Stockbrokers have developed their own apps that allow stock trading through your Smartphones. This is not only convenient but quite simple too.

There are dozens of stock trading apps on the market. But which is the best stock market app?

Wondering? Don’t!

Best stock market apps for investment:


Here are 6 of the best app for the stock market which you can consider for your stock trading journey. You can easily compare and choose the best stock market apps for beginners among them.


1) Zerodha:

Claiming to be the number one broker in India, Zerodha started its operations on the 15th of August 2010. Popular among traders, 6+ million clients place millions of orders through the application’s powerful ecosystem.

Zerodha contributes over 15 percent of all Indian retail trading volumes. According to Ashley Coutinho’s article written on 5th September 2021, Zerodha has 45,43,870 active clients which capture 19.09% of the market share.

Unique features of Zerodha

Here are some aspects which set Zerodha apart from the other stock market apps for beginners –

  • Besides stocks, you can trade in futures and options, commodity derivatives, IPOs, bonds and Government securities, currency derivatives, etc.
  • Zerodha was awarded Economic Times Start-up of the Year 2020
  • You can learn the technicalities of stock trading with Zerodha’s Varsity, an educational platform for investors and beginners


  • All investments that are delivery-based trading are completely free of cost.
  • Flat INR 20 or 0.03 percent, whichever is lower will be executed per order for every intraday trades that are done across asset classes such as equity, commodity, or currency trades.
  • All direct mutual fund investments are absolutely free.


  • Offers you a brokerage calculator that helps you evaluate the fees and other taxes imposed on trading.
  • Provides you with trading tools such as Kite, Console, Coin, Varsity mobile, and Sentinel for facilitating your trading.
  • Zerodha’s interactive portal ‘Z-Connect’ covers almost every query of the client in form of blogs, illustrations, and interactive articles. Apart from that users can always reach out to Zerodha via email and phone.
  • Trading in stocks is affordable if you follow the buy-and-hold approach. You don’t pay any brokerage on delivery trading.


  • The account opening process consumes a lot of time.
  • Covers only the Indian stock market.
  • Credit / Debit cards cannot be used for deposits and withdrawals.


2) Groww:

Groww intends to make investments in India, easy, fast, and transparent. It has 10 million-plus customers handled with 100+ team members. Backed by Ribbit Capital, Sequoia, Y Combinator, Kauffman Fellows, Propel Venture Partners, and Kairos, Groww is operated from Bengaluru.

Unique features of Groww

Here are some salient facts to know about Groww as a trading app –

  • Besides stocks, Groww also allows you to invest in gold, mutual funds, US stocks, futures and options, and fixed deposits
  •  You can download  the app on your Android phone, iPhone as well as on your computer and sync your account across platforms
  • For any help, query, or feedback, you can connect with Groww’s efficient customer service department online.


  • Account opening and maintenance are absolutely free with Groww.
  • For equity brokerage, Groww charges INR 20 or 0.05 percent whichever is lower.
  • For Futures and Options brokerage, Groww charges INR 20 per executed order.


  • It has a simple pricing model.
  • The application offers professional management of shares, real estate, gold, bonds, etc.
  • Investing via UPI is possible.
  • You can have portfolio insights by using Groww via the website.
  • The service allows you to compare three mutual funds at the same time.
  • Users can view their SIP history on the application.


  • Groww’s investment products offer no option to trade in the commodity, and currency segments.
  • It offers no call and trade services.
  • Groww does not provide any stock tips, research reports, or recommendations.
  • There is no margin trading facility or margin against shares.


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3) Upstox:

Started as an idea to make trading easier and cheaper, Upstox currently has 50,00,000+ investors. This platform is backed by Mr. Ratan Tata and Tiger Global management. Upstox Pro platform was launched with a big focus on mobile and powerful trading platforms in 2016. Since then, Upstox has committedly worked for making investments easy as well as accessible to everyone, not only via the web but also via mobile.

Unique features of Upstox

Backed by reputed names in the industry, Upstox also has the following salient aspects that investors should know about –

  • With a single platform, Upstox allows you to trade in stocks, futures and options, NFOs, commodities, IPOs, and mutual funds
  • Started in 2016, Upstox has delivered relevant solutions to lakhs of its customers
  • You can open a Upstox account online with minimal hassles
  • There are hundreds of charts and technical analysis tools that help you pick the right stocks to create a quality portfolio


  • Upstox does not charge a single penny when trading mutual funds and IPOs.
  • The platform charges INR 20 or 0.05 percent, whichever is lower on Equity Intraday, Futures, and Options, Currency, Commodity, as well as Equity Delivery.

You can check out the detailed brokerage rates on Equity, Currency as well as Commodities on Upstox’s website.


  • Complete KYC procedure and IPV is available over the web. So, the work that usually takes one to two days or at times even weeks, gets done within minutes.
  • Upstox provides you with all the tools you need while trading such as brokerage calculator, Span calculator, options builder tool, etc. All of these make trading with Upstox extremely easy.
  • The platform answers all the queries of customers within a very short span of time. Users can also reach out to Upstox using its online ticketing system.


  • Call and trade with Upstox are chargeable at INR 20 per trade.
  • A particular order called Good Till Cancelled (GTC) is not supported in the Delivery segment.


Read our blog on Stock Market investing | The 7 Golden Rules of Stock Market Investments


4) Sharekhan:

With 750+ service managers, 3000+ Sharekhan centers in 600+ cities, Sharekhan’s human as well as an online network helps you trade effortlessly. The platform is backed by BNP Paribas – a French international banking group, the largest bank in Europe, and seventh-largest in the world when calculated based on total assets.

Sharekhan is the 3rd largest stockbroker in India. Its services are not only limited to retail customers but also expanded to institutions. The platform has designed attractive prepaid trading plans for high volume customer that reduces brokerage fee notably.

Unique features of Sharekhan

Here are some of the notable features of Sharekhan –

  • Sharekhan is a full-service broker in India. This means that it charges brokerage on every trade in stocks that you place through it. However, for the brokerage charges, the app offers professional advice and guidance in picking the right stocks.
  • You can open an online Demat account within 15 minutes with its hassle-free application process
  • You can consult with experts and professionals to learn the skills of stock trading and to build your wealth
  • Sharekhan uses fundamental and technical research philosophies to help you invest right


  • Sharekhan charges INR 400 for Demat accounts after the first year of free service.
  • It offers trading as well as Demat account opening entirely free.
  • Other charges depend on the type of account that you open and the security that you trade-in.


  • Calling as well as trading is completely free.
  • You need to pay absolutely no charges for fund transfers made from banks to trading accounts or the other way round.
  • Using Sharekhan users can have online classroom sessions for beginners as well as advance traders without paying a single penny.
  • Being a part of Sharekhan is being a part of a huge chain across India.
  • Its trading platform, Trade Tiger is available for free.
  • You can invest in different types of securities and assets with a single account


  • The platform doesn’t offer a typical three-in-one Demat account.
  • You cannot place an order after trading time.
  • Brokerage charges are much higher compared to other stock market app for beginners.


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5) Motilal Oswal:

Available in Hindi, Gujarati as well as Tamil, Motilal Oswal has 22,00,000+ happy customers. The company was awarded as the best local brokerage firm in India at the Asia Money Brokers Poll 2020. Founded by Ramdeo Agarwal in 1987. Motilal Oswal currently has more than 30+ years of being in the Indian stock market. Since its inception, to date, they have burgeoned as a firm that currently serves:

  • Retail customers
  • High net worth investors
  • Institutional investors
  • Corporate clients

The firm has its presence in 2200+ locations and invests a significant amount of its profit in research and analysis.

Unique features of Motilal Oswal

Motilal Oswal also boasts of some unique features that list it among the best trading apps in India. Here’s a look at these features of Motilal Oswal –

  • It offers you good trading platforms that are useful for all kinds of traders.
  • The company has a decent amount of franchise network.
  • It has a fund transfer facility with more than 60 banks.
  • Motilal Oswal is a very established name in the Indian stock market.
  • Its research reports are considered to be the best in class.


  • The delivery brokerage of Motilal Oswal is 0.5 percent.
  • Its Intraday and Futures charges are 0.05 percent.
  • Options will cost you INR 100 per lot.
  • Commodities will cost 0.5 percent and INR 20 per lot.
  • The firm doesn’t charge a single penny for opening a trading/Demat account as well as maintaining it annually. However, its Demat account’s annual maintenance charges are INR 441.


  • You can freely open an account and also not get charged with maintenance for the first year.
  • You get a free personal trading advisor for choosing the right stocks to buy
  • Expert stock recommendations can be availed free of cost
  • You can invest in IPOs, NFOs, ETFs, commodities, gold, mutual funds, and futures and options besides stocks
  • You get free research reports on leading stocks. These reports help you to make the right trading decisions to maximize your wealth.


  • Does not offer a three-in-one Demat account.
  • Its brokerage is a little bit on the higher end than other broker firms.


Each one of the above-mentioned applications has its own specialty. So, ask yourself a very important question before deciding the best stock market app for yourself i.e., what are some of the most vital features a trading app should contain? Then choose an app based on its benefits, pricing, and the securities that it offers to trade-in. With these 5 apps, however, you cannot go wrong.


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How to start investing with these apps

After you select from the best stock market apps in India, the next step is to start investing in stocks. To do so, here are the steps that you should follow –

  • First, select the app with which you want to start your trading journey
  • Download the app from the Google Play Store or Apple Store
  • Open your account by entering your details. These details include your name, age, address, mobile number, email ID, PAN Card number, Aadhaar card number, etc.
  • You also need to mention your bank account name, branch name, IFSC code, and bank account number to link your bank account with your online trading and Demat account
  • You would have to verify your details using OTP sent to the mobile number and/or the email ID that you registered when filling in the online account opening form
  • If any account opening fee is to be paid, the same should be paid through your net banking account or UPI ID
  • The last step is to submit your documents and a digital signature. Most apps allow you to upload your documents online. Your signature can also be uploaded online on the app’s platform
  • Once the account opening form is filled and the documents are uploaded, the stock trading app would verify your details and open a Demat and trading account in your name
  • Some apps might open the accounts within minutes while some might take 1 or 2 trading days for the same.


Watch Our Video on Stock Market Investing



When you start your stock investment journey with any of these apps, here are few things that you should keep in mind –

  • If you are a beginner, check the historic price trends of the stocks before you pick them. Research the stocks thoroughly so that you don’t go wrong in your choice. Many apps offer research reports and recommendations which you can peruse when picking stocks.
  • Be patient with stock investments. The equity market is volatile. The stocks that you pick might become bearish. Try and hold onto them. They might recover with time and give good returns.
  • Opt for diversification so that you can invest in stocks across market sectors for maximum profitability
  • Keep abreast of the latest news and stories of the stock market. This would give you an insight into the right time to buy and sell stocks.

In fact, the last point is quite important. The stock market is an ever-changing universe. You need to know what is happening in the market daily so that you can change your position in stocks. Moreover, you should get your trading queries resolved with the help of experts. One app that lets you do this is the Koppr app.


Read Our Complete Guide on How to invest in stocks in India for trading or long-term investment?


6) The Koppr app – making a difference in stock trading:

With the Koppr app, you can plan your finances and get complete guidance on stock trading. The app also features the latest news that you can use to stay informed. Get access to –

  • Blogs
  • Videos
  • Articles
  • Trending topics
  • Latest news
  • Podcasts
  • Videos
  • Channels, etc.

Also, for any queries and help, you can connect with Koppr Tribes, a platform that brings you together with other stock investors and experts –

Lastly, you can take financial courses, test your knowledge by participating in quizzes, attend live financial workshops and do more with your investment journey. Have a look –

So, besides the apps for stock trading, Koppr can be the best complemental app to enhance your knowledge about the avenue. Download the Koppr app and stay updated with the latest happenings in the market which not only affects stock investments but also other avenues like mutual funds, bonds, gold, etc.

With a diversified portfolio, you need to be an all-rounder investor with knowledge of different avenues and how they are affected by market movements.

Koppr lets you do just that. So download the Koppr app and start stock trading with complete knowledge of the stock market. After all, knowledge is a powerful thing, a factor that can make or break your portfolio.